BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

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BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

十四五规划中明确指出,中国要在2030年实现碳达峰,2060年实现碳中和。3060计划是国家战略,中美首脑高峰论坛已经达成共识,双碳目标一直以来是一个热议话题。

作为一名建筑设计师,坚定信念跟上党和国家的号召,通过调研学习与实践,总结项目落地过程中的应用点,为国家能源与建筑能耗贡献出自己的一份力量。

笔者围绕CO2展开调研,内容涵盖产业链各个角落,例如:什么是碳?为什么减碳?碳如何影响气候变化?碳与能源什么关系?一度用多少碳?建筑产业能耗有哪些?如何减碳?如何降低建筑能耗?BIM技术如何结合被动式建筑?BIM装配式建筑能否减碳?BIM技术如何做建筑能耗分析

建筑全生命周期
可持续发展
……
针对笔者的脑洞,我们开启崭新的探索之旅吧!

……

what is the passive house ?

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

If you live in an old house, a cold, windyday often means layering on an extra sweater, checking the thermostat to makesure the heat’s really on, and maybe even an argument or two with your roomieover who keeps turning the heat up (or down). Even modern homes can besusceptible to warm and cold spots, with upstairs bedrooms becominguncomfortably toasty and first-floor spaces losing heat to high ceilings ordrafty fireplaces.

 

如果你住在老房子里,寒冷多风的日子通常意味着多穿一件毛衣,检查恒温器以确保暖气真的开着,甚至可能会和你的室友就谁把暖气开大(或关小)发生一两次争吵。即使是现代住宅也可能受到暖区和冷区的影响,楼上的卧室变得不舒服,一楼的空间因高高的天花板或通风良好的壁炉而失去热量。

 

In fact, there’s no thermostat at all,because a passive house maintains its comfy conditions without a conventionalfurnace, boiler or HVAC system. So what exactly is a passive house and how isit different from a traditional home or other alternatively powered homes?

 

但在被动式房子里,这些冬天的痛苦(或夏天的高潮)已经成为过去。温度是舒适的,从一个房间到另一个房间都是一致的——不需要额外的层或恒温器诡计。

 

A passive house is one in which acomfortable interior climate can be maintained without active heating andcooling systems [source: Passivhaus Institut].

 

被动式住宅是指在没有主动加热和冷却系统的情况下保持舒适的室内气候的住宅[来源:被动式住宅研究所]。

 

While other houses might employ a passivesolar design or use alternative energy sources such as wind and solar power tominimize their environmental impact, the passive house is a specific certifiedbuilding standard conceived and upheld by the Passivhaus Institut in Germany.

 

虽然其他房屋可能采用被动式太阳能设计或使用替代能源,如风能和太阳能,以最小化其对环境的影响,但被动式房屋是由德国被动式住宅研究所构想和支持的特定认证建筑标准。

characteristics of a pssive house include the following :

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

Characteristics of a passive house include the following:

被动式房屋有以下特点:

•       Heavy insulation: Themost important component of a passive house is a layer of highly efficientinsulation that wraps continuously around the building envelope — even beneaththe concrete slab in the basement — reducing heat transfer between indoor andoutdoor spaces 

•       高隔热:被动式住宅最重要的组成部分是一层高效的隔热层,它连续包裹在建筑围护结构周围——甚至在地下室的混凝土板下——减少室内外空间之间的热量传递

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

 

•       Design without thermalbridges: The heated air inside a house will follow the path of least resistanceto the outside of the house, known as a “thermal bridge.”Conventional homes offer plenty of them, in the form of inefficient windows,poorly insulated walls or cracks under doors, but passive house designeliminates them through superior insulation and efficient windows and doors.

•       没有热桥的设计:室内的加热空气将沿着阻力最小的路径通向室外,被称为“热桥”。传统的房屋以低效的窗户、绝缘差的墙壁或门下的裂缝的形式提供了大量的这些问题,但被动式房屋的设计通过优越的绝缘和高效的门窗消除了这些问题。

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

 •       Airtight construction:Passive houses feature airtight construction to prevent moist room air (orhumid outside air, in warmer climates) from penetrating into the home’sconstruction where it can cause mold, affect inside air quality and evenstructural damage.

•       密封结构:被动式房屋采用密封结构,以防止潮湿的室内空气(或温暖气候下潮湿的室外空气)渗透到房屋建筑中,从而导致霉菌,影响室内空气质量,甚至结构损坏。

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

 •       Ventilation: Anotherimportant component of passive house design is its efficient centralventilation system, which continually exchanges moist, “polluted”inside air for fresh, filtered outside air to maintain a comfortable,consistent temperature and humidity level.

•       通风:被动式房屋设计的另一个重要组成部分是其高效的中央通风系统,它不断地将潮湿的、“受污染的”室内空气交换为新鲜的、经过过滤的室外空气,以保持舒适、一致的温度和湿度水平。

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

 

•       Passive heating technology: Perhaps the most ingenious part of the passive house concept is itsability to heat (or cool) the inside spaces with nothing but fresh exteriorair. As fresh, cold air enters the house through the ventilation system, it isheated by the warm air it passes on its way out.

•       被动式供暖技术:被动式住宅概念中最巧妙的部分可能是,它能够只利用室外新鲜空气来加热(或冷却)室内空间。当新鲜的冷空气通过通风系统进入房屋时,它在出去时被暖空气加热。

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

•       High-efficiency windows:Efficient windows are essential to the passive house design. The specificwindows used vary from climate to climate, but triple-paned windows with low-eglazing, argon gas and insulated frames are common.

•       高效的窗户:高效的窗户对被动式房屋设计至关重要。具体的窗户使用不同的气候,但三窗格的低e玻璃,氩气和绝缘框架是常见的。

 

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

•       Passive solar gains:Passive solar gain — that is, the good old warmth of the sun — is the primarysource of heat for a passive house, so the situation of the home on the lot andthe size and position of windows are important factors.

•       被动式太阳能增益:被动式太阳能增益——即太阳的温暖——是被动式房屋的主要热量来源,因此住宅在场地上的位置、窗户的大小和位置都是重要因素。

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

certification standards 

Meeting Certification Standards

会议认证标准

A building needs to meet a long list ofrequirements relating to its air tightness, energy efficiency and constructionstandards before it can be considered a passive house.

在被认为是被动式住宅之前,建筑需要满足一长串与气密性、能源效率和建筑标准有关的要求。

 

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

To be certified by the Passivhaus Institutin Darmstadt, Germany, a passive house must consume less than 15 kilowatt-hoursof electricity per square meter per year for its heating and cooling, withtotal energy consumption for all heat, hot water and household electricity thatdoesn’t exceed 120 kilowatt-hours per square meter per year [source: PassivhausInstitut].

被动式住宅研究所签发证书,在达姆施塔特,德国,一个被动的房子必须消耗不到15千瓦时的电力每年每平方米的加热和冷却,与能源消费总量都热,热水和家庭用电不超过120千瓦时每平方米每年[来源:“研究所)。

 

In addition to awarding its “QualityApproved Passive House” certificate to qualifying homes, the PassivhausInstitut offers a “Certified Passive House Designer” certificate toindividual architects, builders, engineers and others who pass an examinationor complete an approved passive house construction project.

被动式住宅协会除了向合格的房屋颁发“质量认可被动式住宅”证书外,还向通过考试或完成被动式住宅建设项目的个人建筑师、建筑商、工程师和其他人员颁发“认证被动式住宅设计师”证书。

 

In a passive house, the building itself andits mechanical systems are treated as one single, overall system. To helpmaintain the necessary balance in the system between hot and cold, and betweenstale air and fresh, architects and engineers use a sophisticated softwareprogram to design passive homes and determine their projected energy usage.

在被动式房屋中,建筑本身和它的机械系统被视为一个单一的整体系统。为了帮助维持系统中冷热之间、污浊空气与新鲜空气之间的必要平衡,建筑师和工程师使用一种复杂的软件程序来设计被动式住宅,并确定其预计的能源使用量。

 

The software helps to determine everythingfrom the optimal size and location of windows and the recommended capacity forthe ventilation system, to suggestions for minimizing construction costswithout compromising quality or efficiency.

该软件可以帮助确定从窗户的最佳尺寸和位置,通风系统的推荐容量,到在不影响质量和效率的情况下最小化建筑成本的建议。

 

Despite the high standards required forpassive house certification, most conventional houses can be remodeled toachieve passive house status by making improvements to the insulation and airtightness, replacing existing windows with high-efficiency windows, andmodifying the existing duct work to accommodate the passive house system ofheat recovery from exhaust air

尽管被动式房屋认证要求高标准,但大多数传统房屋都可以通过改造来达到被动式房屋的状态,通过改善隔热和气密性,用高效窗户取代现有的窗户,并对现有的风道进行改造,以适应从排风中回收热量的被动房屋系统

 

So are passive houses worth the effort? Bymost estimates, all these stringent requirements, tests and certifications payoff in a big way: Passive homes provide an average energy savings of 90 percentover conventional homes and up to 80 percent compared to homes built to modernEuropean standards for energy consumption 

那么,被动式房屋值得付出这样的努力吗?据大多数人估计,所有这些严格的要求、测试和认证在很大程度上得到了回报:与传统住宅相比,被动式住宅平均节省了90%的能源,与按照现代欧洲能源消耗标准建造的住宅相比,可节省高达80%的能源

 

调研总结: 

通过调研总结被动式建筑与传统建筑的区别:

能源供给:用风能太阳能替代传统化石能源

保温材料:高隔热保温材料
热桥交换:阻隔所有空气热桥

密封结构:高密闭性,以及密闭性测试

通风系统:中央空调系统,恒温恒湿

采暖系统:地源热泵、空气能、太阳能、磁悬浮等

高效窗户:三层low-E隔热窗户

能耗指标:15千瓦时/年/平米

 

BIM软件支持

BIM+碳路 | 德国被动式建筑调研 What is the passive house ?

4D GCPSU

Archi CAD / MagiCAD

Gproject / RFID

3D3S / Midas gen / SAP 2000 / Tekla

晨曦 / 广联达 / 鲁班 / 品茗

BPIM / EPIMS / PW

AntPC / BeePC 

Bentley

solidworks

……

持续更新中……

图文来源于微信公众号(第六情报科)

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